Top of page Skip to content
Content starts here


Core Temperature Predictions

To establish the ability to anticipate undesirable increases in human core body temperature beyond safe limits, this research explores the development of predictive, individualized, mathematical models, including first-principle approaches, data-driven algorithms, and hybrid models.


Langan, S. P., C. N. Manning, M. C. Morrissey, T. Gulati, S. Laxminarayan, J. Reifman, and D. J. Casa. Efficacy of two intermittent cooling strategies during prolonged work-rest intervals in the heat with personal protective gear compared with a control condition. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2023 May; 123(5):1125-1134. [PDF, Pubmed]

Laxminarayan, S., S. Hornby, L. N. Belval, G. E. W. Giersch, M. C. Morrissey, D. J. Casa, and J. Reifman. Prospective validation of 2B-Cool: integrating wearables and individualized predictive analytics to reduce heat injuries. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2023 April 1; 55(4):751-764. [PDF, Pubmed]

Manning, C. N., M. C. Morrissey, S. P. Langan, R. L. Earp, R. A. Huggins, R. M. Curtis, Y. Sekiguchi, S. Laxminarayan, J. Reifman, and D. J. Casa. Fluid replacement strategies and heart rate variability recovery following prolonged exercise in the heat and mild dehydration. Physiologia. 2023 February 16; 3:98-112. [PDF, Link]

Gulati, T., R. Hatwar, G. Unnikrishnan, J. E. Rubio, and J. Reifman. A 3-D virtual human model for simulating heat and cold stress. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2022 August 1; 133(2):288-310. [PDF, Pubmed]

Unnikrishnan, G., R. Hatwar, S. Hornby, S. Laxminarayan, T. Gulati, L. N. Belval, G. E. W. Giersch, J. B. Kazman, D. J. Casa, and J. Reifman. A 3-D virtual human thermoregulatory model to predict whole-body and organ-specific heat-stress responses. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2021 September; 121(9):2543-2562. [PDF, PubMed]

Laxminarayan, S., V. Rakesh, T. Oyama, J. B. Kazman, R. Yanovich, I. Ketko, Y. Epstein, S. Morrison, and J. Reifman. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2018 June 1; 124(6):1387-1402. [PDF, PubMed]

Laxminarayan, S., V. Rakesh, M. J. Buller, W. J. Tharion, and J. Reifman. Preventing heat injuries by predicting individualized human core temperature. Proceedings of the HFM-254 Symposium on Health Surveillance and Informatics in Missions: Multidisciplinary Approaches and Perspectives. Paris, France. 2015 October 12-14; 21:1-11. [PDF, DTIC]

Laxminarayan, S., M. Buller, W. Tharion, and J. Reifman. Human core temperature prediction for heat-injury prevention. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. 2015 May 7; 19(3):883-891. [PDF, PubMed]

Gribok, A., M. Buller, R. Hoyt, and J. Reifman. A real-time algorithm for predicting core temperature in humans. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine. 2010 July; 14(4):1039-1045. [PDF, PubMed]

Gribok, A. V., M. J. Buller, and J. Reifman. Individualized short-term core temperature prediction in humans using biomathematical models. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2008 May; 55(5):1477-1487. [PDF, PubMed]

Gribok, A. V., M. J. Buller, R. W. Hoyt, and J. Reifman. Providing statistical measures of reliability for body core temperature predictions. Proceedings of the 29th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference. Lyon, France. 2007 August 23-26; 545-548. [PDF, PubMed]

Oleng', N. O., A. Gribok, and J. Reifman. Error bounds for data-driven models of dynamical systems. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 2007 May; 37(5):670-679. [PDF, PubMed]

Gribok, A., T. McKenna, and J. Reifman. Regularization of body core temperature prediction during physical activity. Proceedings of the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference. New York, NY. 2006 August 30-September 3; 459-463. [PDF, PubMed]

Oleng', N. O., and J. Reifman. Hybrid approaches to physiologic modeling and prediction. Proceedings of the Biomonitoring for Physiological and Cognitive Performance during Military Operations - International Society for Optical Engineering. Orlando, FL. 2005 March 31-April 1; 5797:193-203. [PDF, DOI]