Stress-fracture injuries during military training remains a leading health concern for U.S. Service members. In this project, we use an integrated musculoskeletal finite-element model to characterize the kinematics and kinetics of the human body, and use high-resolution medical images to quantify how basic combat training affects the bone (tibia) health of female military recruits.
Hughes, J. M., E. Gaffney-Stomberg, K. I. Guerriere, K. M. Taylor, K. L. Popp, C. Xu, G. Unnikrishnan, J. S. Staab, R. W. Matheny, Jr., J. P. McClung, J. Reifman, and M. L. Bouxsein. Changes in tibial bone microarchitecture in female recruits in response to 8weeks of U.S. Army Basic Combat Training. Bone. 2018 August 1; 113:9-16. 
Unnikrishnan, G., C. Xu, K. L. Popp, J. M. Hughes, A. Yuan, K. I. Guerriere, S. Caksa, K. E. Ackerman, M. L. Bouxsein, and J. Reifman. Regional variation of bone density, microarchitectural parameters, and elastic moduli in the ultradistal tibia of young black and white men and women. Bone. 2018 July 1; 112:194-201. 
Popp, K. L., J. M. Hughes, A. Martinez-Betancourt, M. Scott, V. Turkington, S. Caksa, K. I. Guerriere, K. E. Ackerman, C. Xu, G. Unnikrishnan, J. Reifman, and M. L. Bouxsein. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength are influenced by race/ethnicity in young adult men and women. Bone. 2017 October; 103:200-208. [PDF, 28712877]
Xu, C., A. Silder, J. Zhang, J. Reifman, and G. Unnikrishnan. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2017 March 23; 18:125. [PDF, 28330449]
Xu, C., A. Silder, J. Zhang, J. Hughes, G. Unnikrishnan, J. Reifman, and V. Rakesh. An integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to evaluate effects of load carriage on the tibia during walking. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2016 October 1; 138(10). [PDF, 27437640]