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Musculoskeletal Analysis of Human Body

Stress-fracture injuries during military training remains a leading health concern for U.S. Service members. In this project, we use an integrated musculoskeletal finite-element model to characterize the kinematics and kinetics of the human body, and use high-resolution medical images to quantify how basic combat training affects the bone (tibia) health of female military recruits.


Popp, K. L., C. Xu, A. Yuan, J. M. Hughes, G. Unnikrishnan, J. Reifman, and M. L. Bouxsein. Trabecular microstructure is influenced by race and sex in Black and White young adults. Osteoporosis International. 2019 January; 30(1):201-209. [PDF, PubMed]

Hughes, J. M., E. Gaffney-Stomberg, K. I. Guerriere, K. M. Taylor, K. L. Popp, C. Xu, G. Unnikrishnan, J. S. Staab, R. W. Matheny, Jr., J. P. McClung, J. Reifman, and M. L. Bouxsein. Changes in tibial bone microarchitecture in female recruits in response to 8 weeks of U.S. Army Basic Combat Training. Bone. 2018 August 1; 113:9-16. [PDF, PubMed]

Unnikrishnan, G., C. Xu, K. L. Popp, J. M. Hughes, A. Yuan, K. I. Guerriere, S. Caksa, K. E. Ackerman, M. L. Bouxsein, and J. Reifman. Regional variation of bone density, microarchitectural parameters, and elastic moduli in the ultradistal tibia of young black and white men and women. Bone. 2018 July 1; 112:194-201. [PDF, PubMed]

Popp, K. L., J. M. Hughes, A. Martinez-Betancourt, M. Scott, V. Turkington, S. Caksa, K. I. Guerriere, K. E. Ackerman, C. Xu, G. Unnikrishnan, J. Reifman, and M. L. Bouxsein. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength are influenced by race/ethnicity in young adult men and women. Bone. 2017 October; 103:200-208. [PDF, PubMed]

Xu, C., A. Silder, J. Zhang, J. Reifman, and G. Unnikrishnan. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2017 March 23; 18:125. [PDF, PubMed]

Xu, C., A. Silder, J. Zhang, J. Hughes, G. Unnikrishnan, J. Reifman, and V. Rakesh. An integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to evaluate effects of load carriage on the tibia during walking. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2016 October 1; 138(10):101001. [PDF, PubMed]